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Communism in China

1 Adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on December 10, 1948. Text at

2 For a full translation into English, see "China's Charter 08, Translated from the Chinese by Perry Link," The New York Review of Books, Volume 56, Number 1 · January 15, 2009, at

3 Ariana Eunjung Cha, "In China, a Grass-Roots Rebellion; Rights Manifesto Slowly Gains Ground Despite Government Efforts to Quash It," The Washington Post, January 29, 2009; p. A01 at

4 Jia Qinglin, "Gaoju Zhongguo Tese Shehuizhuyi weida qizhi ba Renmin Zhengxie shiye buduan tui xiang qian jin," (Raise high the great banner of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics to press ahead unceasingly the mission of the People's Consultative Conference," Qiushi (Seek Truth), 2009 Volume 2, Issue 495, January 16, 2009, at

5 "Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung, Speeches At The Second Session, Of The Eighth Party Congress,

May 8-23, 1958" in "Mao Zedong Sixiang Wansui" (Long Live Mao Zedong Thought), undated Red Guard publication, probably from 1968. From Mao Zhu Weikan Gao, 'Mao Zedong Sixiang Wansui' Bieji ji Qita (Anthology of Unpublished Writings of Mao, 'Long Live Mao Zedong Thought' and Others), reprinted by Center for Chinese Research Materials, Oakton, Virginia, 1989, Library of Congress accession number DS778.M3 A25 1989. For affirmation of the authenticity of the "Mao Zedong Sixiang Wansui" documents see Stuart Schram, ed., Chairman Mao Talks to the People, Talks and Letters: 1956-1971 (New York: Pantheon Books, 1974), pp. 49-57.

6 The best eye-witness account is found in a declassified U.S. Department of State telegram 89 BEIJING 17584, Subject: TFCH01 -- TIANANMEN, JUNE 3--4: A PERSONAL ACCOUNT (Press Here for Text).

7 Quotations of Chairman Mao Tse-tung, p. 61.

8 "Chinese police detain tainted milk activist," The Associated Press, January 2, 2009; Audra Ang, "China to try critic of government's quake response," The Associated Press, February 2, 2009. Chris Buckley, "China arrests quake critic on secrets charge," Reuters, July 19, 2008.

9 "Superpower" is a charged word, but, there it is. Read the opening sentence of C. Fred Bergsten, "A Partnership of Equals - How Washington Should Respond to China's Economic Challenge," Foreign Affairs, July/August 2008, at

10 To paraphrase Zoellick. Robert Zoellick, "Remarks to the American Embassy," August 2, 2005.

11 Party membership in July 2007 was reported to be 72.39 million. “China Communist Party Adds 2.6M Members,” The Associated Press, July 10, 2007.

12 “China has 80 million Middle Class Members: Official,” Xinhua, June 18, 2007. The story says China’s National Bureau of Statistics defines “middle-income households as having an annual income between 60,000 and 500,000 yuan (7,792 and 65,790 U.S. dollars).”

13 The figures were reportedly included in a story published in Shijie Guanli (“World Manager,”) magazine. A colleague directed my attention to the statistics included in an article by Men Jiedan ed., “Zhongguo Yiwan Fuhao 9 cheng yishang shi gaogan zinu” (More than 90% of Chinese multi-millionaires are children of senior cadres), Zhongxinwang bbs, March 12, 20208, posted on the Zhongguo Xinwenshe Henan Fenshe website at,, (July 10, 2008)

14 Or, as CCP General Secretary Hu Jintao averred in his report to the 17th Party Congress, October 24, 2007, "We must uphold the Party's role as the core of leadership in directing the overall situation and coordinating the efforts of all quarters." For the text of the report see "Full text of Hu Jintao's report at 17th Party Congress," Xinhua, October 24, 2007, at

15 "New anti-French rallies form in China, VENTING ANGER: While hundreds of people protested outside outlets of a French retail chain, Mia Farrow was allowed into Hong Kong to deliver a speech on Darfur," Taipei Times, May 2, 2008, p. 1 at .

16 Wendell Minnick, "China Threatens U.S. Defense Contractors Over Taiwan," Defense News, May 12, 2008, p. 8.

17 For example, see Jill Drew, "China Spurns Apology, Keeps Pressure on CNN," The Washington Post, April 18, 2008; p. A17,

18 Choe Sang-hun, "Olympic Torch Protesters Attacked in South Korea," The New York Times, April 28, 2008, at; Sunny Lee, "Internet rumors roil China-Korea ties," Asia Times, August 9, 2008, at

19 Shen Hua, Ho Shan and Lydia Cheung, "Duke University Chinese Student Who Sparked International Furor Says Public Apology Letter Is Fake," Radio Free Asia News, April 18, 2008.

20 China reported 2007 GDP at $3.46 trillion. See "Guonei Shengchan zongzhi (2007 nian 1-4 jidu) chubu gaisuan" [Gross Domestic Product (quarters 1-4, 2007) preliminary figures], National Bureau of Statistics of China, January 24, 2008, at On January 22, 2009, China reported GDP at $4.39 trillion – a 27% increase in US dollar terms. See "Guonei shengchan zongzhi (2008 nian 1-4 jidu)" (GDP for 2008 (QI-QIV)) at

21 While China's exact military spending figures are state secrets, published budget numbers reflect annual increases in real military spending of between 14 and 19 percent, nearly twice the rate of real GDP growth. See also Gordon Fairclough and Jason Leow, "China's Military Boost May Stir Fear," The Wall Street Journal, March 5, 2008, p. A10, at

22 In Chinese, his phrase is "zai shijieshang, jihu suoyou Meiguode duishou dou shi Zhongguode pengyou." See Yuan Peng, "Yuan Peng: Meiguo san da shouduan yanyuan Zhongguo jueqi" (Yuan Peng: America's three major schemes to impede China's rise), Guangzhou Ribao, November 23, 2007, p. A20, at (June 27, 2008). Dr. Yuan Peng is now a senior specialist in American affairs at the Chinese Institute for Contemporary International Relations (CICIR), the research arm of China’s Ministry of State Security. For a discussion of CICIR’s role in the Ministry of State Security see Michael Pillsbury, China Debates the Future Security Environment, National Defense University Press (Washington, D.C.) 2000, pp. 365-366.